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Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning is arriving at a specific statement by logical conclusions from a more general statement. If the logic is not fallacious the conclusion is necessarily always true.

The problem with deduction is that the general statement is not necessarily true. In fact there is no universal statement from which all our knowledge can be deduced. Usually we arrive at general statements by induction and use deduction further on. Some general statements are set by ideology without any empirical evidence, such as the existence of God. Unfortunately most scientists are unaware of the general statements that form the foundation of their reasoning. Those genral principles of science are called axiomas.

Fauceir Therory has developed its own axiomas. The induced general rules allow deductions which amazingly comply with reality.


Tags: Learning System Theory

Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning is drawing conclusions from a limited number of examples or experiences. Inductive reasoning is related to

  • generalization, the development o rules based on observations, and
  • analogy, expecting the same outcome in similar events.

The philosophical concept of induction was developed by David Hume.

Fauceir Theory heavily relies on inductive reasoning. It is by induction that we may develop predictions about the unknown. The conclusions which we arrive at by induction are not necessarily true. They are rather like hypotheses that have to be proved practically.

As rules which are created by induction indisputably are fauceirs themselves, the use to behave as such. For instance, they strive for persistence, so by their elements they tend to ignore evidence that disprove the rule. They may recruit supporters and evolve into ideology that governs thinking and perception of supporters.


Tags: Ideology

Computer memory hierarchy

Evolutionary progress can be illustrated with computer memory. The computer memory is represented by Random-access memory modules. These chips turn into useful hierarchically controlled memory once the computer is turned on:

  • The CPU takes over control about all the electronic processes in those memory chips.
    • First the BIOS is loaded from an other memory chip on the mainbord.
      • Once in the memory the BIOS allows to load the operating system (OS) from an external memory device (hard-disk, USB, CD, or DVD)
        • The OS launches further device drivers for additional hardware
          • The OS also launches applications (word-processor, music player and so on)

The evolution of computer hardware and software is characterized by increasing complexity and hierarchy.

  • The first 'computers' didn't even distinguish between memory and processor. Computers evolved from adding machines with only a very restricted capability to store and process data.
  • When the first computer was invented there wasn't even an operating system.
  • The first operating systems handled only one program and a limited set of devices.
  • As the number of peripherals (printer, hard-disk, scanner and so on) the operating got the task to decide which driver has to be invoked when.
  • As more an more programs appeared, the operating systems had to learn multitasking.
  • The most recent advancement was the evolution of hierarchy controlled through Internet connections. (Whether desired or hated, it just happens.)

Tags: Evolution System Theory

Independent researchers into evolution

Our thinking is limited by ideology. Ideology is made to subconsciously influence ideas. That, of course, holds true for whole frameworks of ideas, theories. Evolutionary theory makes no exception. Since its start, the questions of evolutionary mechanisms bear a heavy burden of ideology, so it is not surprising that the most advanced thinkers worked independently, and so they do today. Here follows an incomplete list of recent theoreticians that because of their independent position (not attached to any university or sponsored institution) developed remarkable ideas some of them come even close to Fauceir Theory.

English

Tim Tyler

  • Although from his personal webpage I can learn a lot about his personnel interests there is no hint that he might be associated with a university. He does not disclose, though, where he earns a living. As most university professors boast their position, and because he doesn't, we may conclude he is neither an academic nor does it matter too much.
  • His main focus is memetics, but he also provides a huge array of examples of self organizing systems.
  • Here is his blog.

Stefan Molyneux

  • In his biography he outlines how he left university and became an independent philosopher.
  • His main focus is on ideological constraints that influence thinking. By his internet radio he provides startling examples how deeply human societies are ruled by ideologies. His major engagement is not evolution, though, but anarchism.

Ayn Rand

  • As she philosophically introduced the notion of Free Will she belongs here, too, although her ideas are maintained by an institute today whose staff members cannot be longer addressed as indpentent thinkers. Anyway, as bound to the promotion of her philosophy, they are by far not as much spoiled as university affiliated researchers.

German

Peter Mersch

  • According to his website he studies mathematics and informatics and works as an independent entrepreneur, now.
  • He published a theory on evolution which unfortunately is no longer available as google discontinued knol.

Bertram Köhler

  • He is a retired scientist who currently lives in Dresden. By that biography, it can be concluded that he gone through marxism while he worked in East Germany's stalinistic era, and he is an independent thinker now. No constraints neither from his former employers nor currently.
  • He mainly illustrates mathematically the generation of complexity in physical systems that have implications on biological and social evolution. As he didn't reach the level of abstraction yet that is provided by Fauceir Theory his ideas remain inconsistent in most aspects.

Tags: Evolution Ideology System Theory

 
   

(c) Mato Nagel, Weißwasser 2004-2013, Disclaimer